Activated carbon is a common coal, made of vegetable or mineral, and activated in special ovens with steam at a very high temperature.
The total available area can reach 1000 m? per gram of carbon. This area is created by the activation process that can open the microspores inside the structure of the carbon.
The activated carbon is available in several types and shapes, of different origin (vegetable or mineral), with different average grain-size, and so on.
Physical action-the action of mechanical filtration, the same way, or better, of a sand multimedia filter.
Chemical action- the action of chemical catalysis of reduction with some inorganic groups.
The different size of the granules of the carbon allows the bed of activated carbon to work same way, or sometimes better, than the quartz sand filters, in order to filter the water and remove sludge, mud, lime, etc.
The most important feature of a bed of activated carbon is the adsorption that is the capacity to trap special type of molecules inside the structures of its microspores.
The activated carbon is commonly used in many fields and many applications, in water (also waste and sewage water) treatment, in air treatment, in the industry of sugar of wine production, and so on.
Particularly, the most common applications in water treatment are :